Faculty and Student Projects

2022-2023 CMHT Graduate Student Research Grant (Project Abstracts)




Classifying Attributes of Mobile Grocery Shopping Apps

Casey Weidmann (Faculty advisor: Dr. Kiseol Yang)

This study aims to examine mobile grocery shopping app service quality attributes and its effects on customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Using Kano model approach, this study analyzed the relative influence of each mobile grocery shopping app service quality attribute on customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction levels. Eighteen mobile grocery shopping app attributes were extracted through the content analysis of mobile grocery shopping apps to examine how customers evaluate and classify the attributes. A total of 269 responses were collected using online survey. Based on the survey data, 18 attributes were grouped into 6 quality types: Must-be, Performance, Attractive, Indifferent, Reverse, and Questionable. Satisfaction and dissatisfaction values were assigned to each attribute for its impact on customer satisfaction. The results of continuous analysis of each attribute indicate that the service attributes belong to performance, attractive, or indifferent. One attribute regarding easy to view menu options, 3 attributes regarding customer information and payment safety, 2 attributes for system processing efficiency, 3 attributes regarding product quality information, 2 attributes regarding customer service/delivery information, 2 attributes on quality of delivered food are classified as performance attributes. This result suggests that customers are satisfied when those attributes are fulfilled, but they are dissatisfied when those attributes are not fulfilled in using mobile grocery shopping apps. Convenient to view products, service notification effectiveness/convenience, and discount information are classified as attractive attributes, indicating the absence of these attributes may not cause dissatisfaction, but increasing satisfaction when they are present. One attribute regarding country-of-origin information of a product is classified as an indifferent attribute which doesn’t affect customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. This study increases our knowledge and understanding of customer preferences and needs in using mobile grocery shopping apps.




Redistributed Ownership and Generational Purchase Intention Motivations of Peer-to-Peer Collaborative Consumption within the Recommerce Apparel Market

Cody Henson, MS (Faculty Advisor: Sanjukta Pookulangara)

Peer-to-peer collaborative consumption in the ecommerce apparel market, also called secondhand recommerce, is one of the largest growth sectors in the broader apparel category and is driven by the enthusiastic adoption of online thrifting by Millennials and Generation Z. Redistributed ownership refers to a specific subset of collaborative consumption in which online resale, auction, consignment or swapping of used goods become owned once again. Research is necessary in this field as past studies have too broadly categorized recommerce motivations with other modes of collaborative consumption like apparel renting, which do not involve permanent ownership redistribution. In the current research we have adopted the theoretical framework of the theory of reasoned action by incorporating the additional intrinsic variables of fashion leadership, need for uniqueness, materialism, and hedonism to measure their impact on purchase intention. The current research was collected from an online survey, derived from a five-point Likert scale, and yielded from a random sample of 300 respondents. Our research suggests that need for uniqueness, hedonism, materialism, attitude, and subjective norms have a positive and significant relationship with purchase intention of secondhand recommerce, while fashion leadership does not. Similarly, our research suggests that the constructs of need for uniqueness, hedonism, and materialism have a positive and significant relationship with attitude towards secondhand recommerce, while fashion leadership does not. These research findings extend the theory of reasoned action and provide relevant insights for secondhand apparel firms looking to position their business models to attract Gen Z and Millennial segments, who are highly driven by the pleasure of hedonic shopping, and the need for uniqueness or bringing substance to self-expression and personal identity when they shop online for secondhand apparel.




Social Media Influencers’ Characteristics Increasing Perceived Credibility of CSR Endorsement and Consumer Desire to Mimic CSR Activities

Elisha Menchaca (Faculty Advisor: Dr. Kiseol Yang)

With the growing importance of CSR practices and the rise of social media influencer marketing, this study examined how social media influencer (SMI)s’ characteristics affect perceived credibility of SMI’s CSR message, foster consumer desire to mimic SMI’s CSR activity, and increase consumer CSR engagement. Using 202 data, six hypotheses were tested using two steps of structural equation modeling. The study findings support that authenticity, trustworthiness, and expertise of SMI’s can increase perceived credibility of SMI’s CSR endorsement. Consumers determine the SMI’s CSR endorsement is credible as they perceive that the SMI comes off very genuine, is honest in giving reviews on products, and knowledgeable in their field by observing the SMI’s activities. This suggests that companies should invest in long-term beneficial working relationships with appropriate SMIs and sponsor them to develop trustful and reliable content. Consequently, perceived credibility of SMI’s CSR endorsement further increases consumer desire to mimic the SMI’s CSR activity and CSR engagement. Companies should select SMIs to endorse their CSR initiatives who not only demonstrate a credible and attractive online persona but also inspire peer consumers to mimic them (Cheng et al., 2021). The study findings shed light on how consumers respond to SMIs’ CSR endorsement and increase our insights to promote CSR initiatives by partnering with the right SMIs who can effectively promote their followers’ CSR participation.




Are the in-store technologies taking away human jobs? How expectation toward the retailer alters the consumer reaction towards in-store technology.

Marissa Narro, MS (Faculty Advisor: Dr. Jiyoung Kim)

Recent technological developments rushed considerable changes and created important disruptions in the retail industry (Shankar et al., 2021). In-store technology innovations ranges from self-checkout to augmented reality and QR code IDs. However, consumers are found to be diverse in how they perceive these technologies and there are various reasons for skepticism towards new in-store technologies (Bull et al, 2020). One of the main points of skepticism is the loss of jobs to the automation technology such as in-store self-checkout. Predictions indicate that over the next few years, various new technologies will impact millions of workers across different professions (Brynjolfsson et al., 2018). As a result, consumers are concerned with the impact the self- checkout technology might bring to the individuals who work as cashiers such as reduced of pay, or even elimination of these jobs completely (Johnston & Szabo, 2010). However, despite extensive discussions about the economic and sociological implications of these technological developments, there has been little research exploring how individuals respond to the substitution of human labor by technology (Granulo et al., 2019). In this study, we examined the relationship between in-store technology, retailer image, and consumer response, proposing that consumers exhibit stronger negative response when they see in-store technology that replaces human employees (versus technology that does not indicate immediate replacement) at a retailer expected to be more local community- oriented and employee-centered, compared to when it is implemented at the large national chain. The purpose of this study is to compare the influence of two in-store technology types, one that results in the immediate loss in human jobs (i.e., self-service checkout) and one with less immediate impact on existing employees (i.e., digital label), on consumer responses (i.e., consumer-company identification, loyalty), when retailer image is consistent with supporting local community and employee well-being (i.e., Sprout) versus when it is a national chain (i.e., Walmart).

Experimental design was employed, and 455 usable data was collected through an online consumer panel (i.e., Prolific). The results showed that retailer image significantly moderates the effects of in-store technology on consumer-company identification and purchase intention. For Sprout (i.e., retailer image with strong social sustainability and local-community orientation), identification is higher when they saw a digital label then when they saw a self-service checkout. For Walmart (i.e., retailer image with weak social sustainability and local-community orientation) didn’t show significant difference in identification between the two technology types. Further, purchase intention is higher when they saw a digital label then when they saw a self-service checkout when presented with Sprout while those who were presented with Walmart didn’t show significant difference in purchase intention between the two technology types.

The research result provides meaningful implication to the retailers, especially those with distinct retailer image, to carefully manage their in-store technology implementation. These findings suggest that technological replacement of human labor has unique psychological consequences that should be taken into account by retailers. It was found that consumers prefer in-store technology that is congruent with the retailer’s image and perceived core value, considering the visible loss of human interaction visible in stores that is known to care for their employees. Therefore, retailers must ensure that the proper technology is implemented for their target market and retailers must carefully weigh the technology implemented in their stores, as the expectation toward the retailer would differ.



Alvarado-Herrera, A., Bigne, E., Aldas-Manzano, J. & Curras-Perez, R. (2017). A scale for measuring consumer perceptions of corporate social responsibility following the sustainable development paradigm. Journal of Business Ethics, 140, 243–262.

Brynjolfsson, E., Mitchell, T. & Rock, D. (2018). What can machines learn, and what does it mean for occupations and the economy? AEA Paper Proceeding. 108, 43–47.

Bull, J.S., Douglass, T., Holmohammadi, A., Hennessey, J., Setia, P., Shankar, V., Tirunillai, S., & Waddoups, R. (2020, November 10). How technology is changing retail. Journal of Retailing. 9(1, 2021). 13-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2020.10.006/

Granulo, A., Fuchs, C. & Puntoni, S. (2019). Psychological reactions to human versus robotic job replacement, Nature Human Behavior, 3, 1062-1069.

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Johnston, J. & Szabo, M. (2010, July 08.) Reflexivity and the Whole Foods Market consumer: the lived experience of shopping for a change. Agriculture and Human Values. 28. 303-319. https://link-springer-com.libproxy.library.unt.edu/article/10.1007/s10460-010-9283-9/

Kim, Y., Lee, S. & Park, K. (2022). Human-like underdog brands. How brand personality affects self-service technology adoption. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal. 50(4), e11237. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.11237/

Shankar, V., Kalyanam, K., Setia, P., Golmohammadi, A., Tirunillai, S., Douglass, T., ... & Waddoups, R. (2021). How technology is changing retail. Journal of Retailing, 97(1), 13-27.

Van Ryzin, G. (2013). An experimental test of expenctancy-disconfirmation. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. 32(3). 597-614. https://doi.org/10.1002/pam.21702/

White, K., MacDonnell, R., & Ellard, J.H. (2012). Belief in a just world: Consumer intentions and behaviours toward ethical products. Journal of Marketing, 76, 103–118.


2022-2023 CMHT Collaborative Faculty Research Grant (Project Abstracts)

Attributes of Transformative Leaders in Sustainable Food and Fiber Systems

Jiyoung Kim, Christy Crutsinger, Priscilla Connors & Kiseol Yang

With the increased focus on the regenerative leadership (Gibbons, 2020) and resilient food and fiber supply chain (United States Department of Agriculture, 2022), transformative leaders who are agile to adopt and cope with these changes are needed (Mars, 2015). These leaders can be found throughout the food and fiber supply chain from the farm to manufacturing, in distribution including warehousing and transportation, and ultimately in the retail setting where consumers express their preferences. Phase 1 and phase 2 of the study allowed the team to document the experiences of transformational leaders in the food and fiber industries as teachable examples of leadership and develop a detailed description of leadership competencies and traits. Based on the findings we argued that there is a strong need to build ecological and agricultural literacy of the students through approaching leadership that integrate resilient and sustainable food and fiber supply chain. While the food and fiber related disciplines in higher educations (e.g., food, nutrition, fiber, textile, consumer science) provide individual courses on the sources of production and supply chain, there is a void in the educational program as the curriculum often fails to coherently link the various elements of the production system with an approach that preserves the society and the environment throughout the food and fiber system. The grant activities are guided by the three content foci aligned with the USDA Food System Transformation framework (USDA, 2022); resilient food and fiber systems, innovative agriculture and supply chain management, and waste management.

Casino, Crime, and Geographic Information System (GIS): Investigating the Spatial Gap between Social Benefits and Disparities

Harold Lee, Jihye Min, & Kiseol Yang

In the past decade, casino gaming has emerged as a popular form of entertainment globally. In 2022, the U.S. commercial casino gaming industry achieved a record-breaking revenue of $60.46 billion, as reported by the American Gaming Association (2022). This surge in revenue highlights the significant demand for casino activities. Responding to this demand, many countries and U.S. states have legalized and established casinos. The positive impact of casinos on local communities is evident, contributing to economic growth through increased tax revenues, elevated household income, job creation, and improved infrastructure (Sheng & Gu, 2018). For instance, the AGA (2022) reports that the direct tax revenue from U.S. casinos in 2022 amounted to $13.49 billion, reflecting a substantial 15.3% increase from the previous year.

While the development of the casino industry brings about numerous beneficial impacts, it is crucial to acknowledge and examine the potential downsides that may affect the communities or neighborhoods adjacent to casino facilities (Walker & Sobel, 2016). Previous research has indicated a potential link between casinos and increased crime rates in the region due to factors such as increased traffic, pathological gaming, mental distress, and cash transactions (Banks & Waugh, 2019; Clouser et al., 2018; Sheng, 2017). This topic has been explored in various disciplines, including criminology, economics, anthropology, and sociology, yielding conflicting findings (e.g., Boggess & Maskaly, 2014; Kim et al., 2016). Social disorganization theory supports the potential causal relationship between casinos and crime rates (Kasarda & Janowitz, 1974). Bursik and Grasmick (1999) also suggested weakened social control over communities near casinos, interfering with community resilience. Community resilience, a measure of communities' ability to prepare for and recover from loss or harm, is likely influenced by casinos, but few studies have explored these relationships (Ruiz-Ballesteros, 2011).

Therefore, the primary objective of the current research is to quantify community resilience by examining crime density and spatial patterns within casino regions, employing the community resilience metric developed by Lam et al. (2015). To enhance the conceptual framework for this study, the social disorganization theory serves as a fitting model, with the incorporation of two additional variables, social benefits and disparities. The anticipated outcome of this study is to derive meaningful implications for the effective management of community resilience and the enhancement of risk reduction strategies through informed policymaking.

Consumer Moral Responses to the Retail and Hospitality Industries’ Socially Irresponsible Actions

Jiyoung Kim, Jihye Min, & Kiseol Yang

We examined the relationship between cognitive dissonance, moral disengagement, moral responses, and purchase intention within the context of the ethical treatment of workers in the apparel supply chain, drawing from the cognitive dissonance theory and moral disengagement theory. Two experimental studies were performed. In study 1, we hypothesized that those who experience high cognitive dissonance (i.e., discovering that their favorite apparel brand did not treat the workers fairly) will experience stronger negative moral emotions (i.e., contempt, anger, and disgust), but this relationship will be weaker when they morally disengage. In study 2, we further examined the role of group identity (i.e., identifying the workers as ingroup members vs. perceiving them as outsiders) in the process of cognitive dissonance and moral disengagement.

Data for study 1 (n=186) and data for study 2 (n=452) were collected and the hypothesized relationships were tested using PROCESS macro (Hayes, 2013). The results indicated that the effect of cognitive dissonance on contempt was not moderated by moral disengagement while the effect of cognitive dissonance on anger and disgust were moderated by moral disengagement. The direct effect of group identity on moral self-image was significant while the direct effect of group identity on purchase intention was not significant. In other words, when presented with an ingroup framing message, moral self-image was lower compared to when an outgroup framing message was presented, indicating that respondents felt more guilty, resulting in a negative evaluation of their moral self-image. In testing the conditional indirect effect (i.e., moderated mediation) of group identity on purchase intention, the results indicated that the effect of group identity on moral self-image was not moderated by moral disengagement. Further, the stronger the moral self-image, the weaker the purchase intention. The findings of the studies provide valuable insights into the psychological processes that consumers undergo when faced with morally challenging consumption options. The study is expected to shed light on contemporary social issues by filling in the attitude-behavior gap among consumers regarding their consumption practices that consider socio-ecological impacts.